Cameron was previously deputy vice-chancellor of education at the University of Western Australia and has also held senior positions in the IT and Telecoms industries at Sun Microsystems, Alcatel and Telstra.
King announced plans earlier this year to step down from her roll after 10 years as vice-chancellor at the university.
Cameron said: “I feel privileged at being given the opportunity to lead Aston University at a time of success, and to evolve the distinctive Aston strategy in a rapidly-changing environment driven by internationalisation, technology and deregulation.
“Aston is renowned for its commitment to graduate employability, translational research, and its engagement with business.
“It is experiencing record numbers of students, best ever levels of student satisfaction, and is growing its research funding base.”
Baroness Brown added: “I’d like to congratulate Prof Cameron warmly on his appointment.
“His credentials as a leader, both in business and within leading universities are a great basis for guiding Aston to continued success.
“I am sure he will work rigorously to promote Aston worldwide, and to further strengthen our reputation as a leading university for business and enterprise.”
Cameron will start his new role in September.