The Grade I listed property, which is home to the two famous Liver Birds that watch over the city and the sea, is owned by Royal London Mutual Insurance Society and is expected to fetch in the region of £40 million.
The building makes up one of the city's "three graces", along with the Cunard Building and Port of Liverpool Building.
The property extends to more than 330,000 sq ft of office and events space, and is also occupied by Princes Foods, Mott MacDonald and Grant Thornton.
Colin Thomasson, executive director at CBRE, the agent marketing the property, said: "The Royal Liver Building is known worldwide and we expect the sale to attract strong interest from investors in the UK and around the globe.
"Our clients have been great custodians of this building for over 100 years, and this sale presents an extremely rare opportunity to acquire a unique part of Liverpool's heritage."